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Historic, Archive Document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific knowledge, policies, or practices. 



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U.S. Department of Agriculture • Foreign Agricultural Service • Washington, D.C. 

foreign 

agriculture 

circular coffee 



Approved by the World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board • USDA 



FCOF 2-80 
APRIL 1980 



ESTIMATE OF 1979/80 WORLD COFFEE CROP DOWN 700,000 BAGS 



SUMMARY 

The fourth USDA estimate of the 1979/80 world coffee crop is 81.1 mil- 
lion bags (60 kilograms each), down 700,000 bags from the third estimate but 
3.4 percent larger than the 1978/79 outturn. Based on past performance, the 
chances are that the fourth estimate of total production will not vary by 
more than 4.7 percent from the final outturn for the year. 

Exportable production, which represents total harvested production less 
domestic consumption in producing countries, is estimated at 61.1 million 
bags, or 2.9 percent higher than the 1978/79 estimate of 59.3 million bags. 

In North America, the production estimate has been decreased by about 

600.000 bags. The largest reduction, 250,000 bags, occurred in the estimate 
for Guatemala, although the final production figure could be 100,000 to 

200.000 bags higher as a result of unreported early harvestings. Downward 
revisions in the production estimates of Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, 
Mexico, and Nicaragua account for most of the balance of the lower esti- 
mate. These changes are generally weather-related. 

Estimates for all South American countries remain unchanged for 1979/80; 
however, the 1978/79 estimate for Colombia has been increased by 400,000 
bags to account for larger-than-expected year-end stocks. 



Total African production in 1979/80 has been lowered by 332,000 bags 
from that previously reported. Because of an extended period of cool, 
cloudy, and rainy weather in late 1979, Ivory Coast is now expected to 
harvest less than 4.2 million bags this year, 500,000 bags below last year's 
total. The estimate for Kenya has been increased by more than 140,000 bags, 
while increases of 80,000 bags each were registered for Cameroon and 
Ethiopia. 

The only Asian change is for India, which has been raised by about 
70,000 bags. 

The estimate for Oceania is unchanged. 

PRODUCTION 



North America 



The North American 1979/80 coffee crop is estimated at 14.8 million 
bags, with exportable production estimated at 11.3 million. All of the 
major revisions from the preceding estimates were downward, led by Guatemala 
with a decrease of 250,000 bags because of heavy rains during the harvest. 

For 1978/79, total North American production is estimated at 16.1 mil- 
lion on bags, while exportable production is estimated at 12.8 million bags. 

Costa Rica's 1979/80 coffee production is estimated at 1.54 million 
bags, down slightly from the third estimate. This decline is attributed to 
the intensive rainy period in some areas that caused some beans to fall and 
increased the incidence of fungus diseases. As of January 30, approximately 
84 percent of the estimated production had been harvested. There is no 
change in the estimate for the 1978/79 crop. 

According to the Coffee Office, export contracts for 1979/80 crop coffee 
through January totaled 713,000 bags with an average value of $3.65 per 
kilogram, or $160 million in total value. 

The Government-regulated domestic prices for roasted ground coffee con- 
taining 12 percent sugar are as follows: Wholesale 6.50 colones per 500 

grams ($0.69 per pound) and retail 7.25 colones per 500 grams ($0.77 per 
pound). Prices for roasted coffee without sugar added are unregulated. 

This coffee was being sold at 17 to 20 colones per kilogram ($0.90-$1.06 per 
pound), depending on quality. The auction price for green coffee for the 
domestic market during October 1979- January 1980 averaged 9.05 colones per 
kilogram ($0.48 per pound). 

The 1979/80 coffee crop in the Dominican Republic is now estimated at 
670,000 bags, roughly the same level as in the preceding year but well below 
expectations prior to Hurricanes David and Frederick. It is estimated that 
10 percent of the country's total coffee tree population was lost as a 
result of the storms; however, the most lasting hardship, reportedly, is the 
damage to the farm road system, which has caused normal market outlets from 
some producing areas to be almost inaccessible. 



2 



Coffee exports for 1979/80 are forecast at 390,000 bags, only slightly 
below shipments a year earlier but barely half the export volume of 
1977/78. Projected earnings from coffee in 1979/80 are $85 million, com- 
pared with $65 million last year. 

Domestic consumption in 1978/79 is estimated at 280,000 bags, green 
equivalent, and is not likely to change much during the current year. 

Despite the Government's efforts to establish a retail domestic price of 
$1.72 per pound, local prices were running below this level. 

Lack of new information caused in part by internal difficulties is the 
primary reason El Salvador's coffee production for 1979/80 remains estimated 
at 2.7 million bags, down rather sharply from the revised estimate of 3.4 
million bags for 1978/79. Reportedly, harvesting crews in some coffee areas 
have made only one picking, rather than three or four, as is usually the 
case. 

The National Coffee Institute (INCAFE) will buy all coffee offered by 
producers, and will make an advance payment to be followed by a final 
settlement after the entire crop is sold. Individual producers and coopera- 
tives will retain the right to process and sell their own coffee to the 
domestic market. An advisory council to INCAFE will be established and will 
include representatives of producers, processors, coffee associations 
cooperatives, and — for the first time — field workers and mill laborers. 

On January 2, 1980, INCAFE took over the responsibilities, assets, and 
offices of the Salvador Coffee Company, thus nationalizing coffee exports. 
Henceforth, INCAFE will be in charge of export marketing. The former 
National Department of Coffee was renamed the Department of Control and 
Registration, and will retain control of export registrations. 

Recent data on exports remain unavailable. Exports registrations were 
closed from early November 1979 through mid-February 1980. In addition to 
labor problems, financial constraints during 1980 may result in lower levels 
of field maintenance, fertilizer usage, pruning activities, and containment 
of coffee rust. 

Haiti's coffee production estimates for 1979/80 and 1978/79 have been 
revised slightly to 650,000 bags and 468,000 bags, respectively. If the 
present export trend continues, total 1979/80 shipments could reach 400,000 
bags. This would be well above 1978/79 exports of 236,000 bags, mainly 
because of the larger 1979/80 crop. 

The average price received by exporters during the latter part of 
December 1979 for unwashed green coffee was approximately $1.70 per pound, 
f.o.b., while washed coffee sold for $1.94. Prices were beginning to weaken 
by the third week of January 1980. 

Haitian authorities suspect from 30,000 to 100,000 bags of the current 
crop are being smuggled into the Dominican Republic because of more 
favorable price and marketing conditions there. 



3 



Guatemala's 1979/80 crop is now estimated at 2.55 million bags, based 
largely on the latest figures received from the National Coffee Office 
(ANACAFE). It is believed final production figures could be 100,000 to 
200,000 bags higher because of unreported early harvestings. 

There is no change in the officialy reported area planted to coffee in 
recent years, which is placed at 248,000 hectares. However, some new coffee 
plantings reportedly have been made in the newly opened areas of Polochic 
and Transversal, and some expansion in the old plantations is believed to 
have taken place. 

The Government has announced that coffee is on the list of approved 
crops being planted on lands it is now distributing under land reform 
programs. No data are available on the extent of these plantings, but 
Guatemala's production will be augmented as these new areas begin bearing 
fruit. 

Numerous efforts are being made by national and international agencies 
to prevent the spread of coffee rust now present in El Salvador. Field 
personnel of ANCAFE have been canvassing coffee plantations near the El 
Salvador border to detect any signs of coffee rust. In addition, the 
Government is carrying out a fumigation control program at the border, and 
is confiscating possible spore-carrying products. 

Coffee production in Honduras in 1979/80 remains estimated at 1.25 mil- 
lion bags, 10 percent larger than the 1978/79 outturn. Except for heavy 
rains in September and December that caused some berry drop, the 1979/80 
crop was produced under virtually ideal conditions. Also, the crop matured 
earlier than usual. Reportedly, producers were not able to obtain suffi- 
cient financing for harvesting their coffee, and consequently some sold 
their crops early to pay production and harvesting costs. 

According to the Honduran Coffee Institute (INCAFE), calendar 1979 ex- 
ports totaled 1,100,975 bags of 60 kilograms, valued at $197 million. The 
export tax on this coffee earned over $30 million in foreign exchange. 

During October-December 1979, exports totaled 154,036 bags, and total 
1979/80 exports are expected to reach 1,150,000 bags, or about 100,000 bags 
over 1978/79 shipments. 

INCAFE expects a continued increase in coffee production during the next 
few years as recent plantings come into full production. Since coffee rust 
exists in Nicaragua and El Salvador, INCAFE expects the disease eventually 
to spread to Honduras. A special committee has been established to 
formulate a program to combat the spread of coffee rust, and will likely 
recommend a containment program that includes quarantine spraying. 

Total coffee production in Jamaica is still forecast at around 35,000 
bags. Because of unusually heavy rainfall, much of the crop ripened at the 
same time with a higher-than-normal moisture content. Despite proper drying 
and curing, some off-color beans have been detected. 



4 



The Coffee Board is currently appraising a loan proposal by the U.K. 
Commonwealth Development Corporation (CDC) to develop 3,000 acres of new 
coffee lands in the Blue Mountain area. Reportedly, the Board will own and 
operate at least 1,200 acres of the total. 

The coffee production estimate for Mexico h as reverted to the original 
3.8-million-bag level of 1979/80. Interim estimates by both Government and 
trade sources for a larger crop now appear to have been overly optimistic. 
Producers had been expected to maximize their harvests, possibly keeping old 
trees in production and intensifying their picking as a carryover effect of 
the high prices of 1978/79. Lower returns to producers in 1979/80 
apparently reduced those incentives. The minimum producer support price re- 
mains unchanged from 2,600 pesos ($115) per quintal (100 kg) for parchment 
and 10.25 pesos ($0.45) per kilogram for cherry coffee prices set in 
mid-November 1979. Output of 3.8 million bags would mean a yield of about 
10.7 bags per hectare on 356,000 hectares. 

It now appears that tighter Government control over the coffee marketing 
system will insure coffee exports for the current year will fall sub- 
stantially below the 3.03 million bags exported during 1978/79, perhaps to 
2.5 million bags or less. The 1978/79 level could not be maintained without 
depleting stocks and/or domestic consumption to unacceptably low levels. 
Exports depend on how competitively the Mexican Coffee Institute (INMECAFE) 
sells coffee on the world market. The $1.90-per-pound minimum export price 
in effort as of mid-February did not make Mexican coffee very competitive. 

With the marketing year half way through the second quarter, exports 
totalled only about 0.5 million bags, well below the 1 million bags shipped 
during the same period last year and well below the 0.95 million bags per- 
mitted through March under INMECAFE' s export quota system. 

Mexican coffee exports of 2.09 million bags in crop year 1979 earned 
$570 million. At $400 million or 70 percent of total exports, coffee repre- 
sented the largest single agricultural export item to the United States for 
the year. 

Domestic consumption for 1979/80 is estimated at 1.3 million bags, up 
0.1 million bags from 1978/79. For the most part, nonexportable lower grade 
coffees are consumed domestically. In an effort to reduce the domestic 
subsidy to consumers, retail prices for exportable coffee were reduced in 
December 1979 for the first time since 1977. The new wholesale and retail 
prices, in pesos per kilogram, for Prime Washed are as follows: 



Wholesale 




Retail 




Old 


New 

Peso/Kilogram 


Old 


New 


62.8 


78.29 


73.90 


90.00 


Domestic roasters 
the new prices still do 


would like a further 
no cover costs. 


increase, 


because they contend 



5 



Nicaragua's 1 979/80 crop estimatae is reduced to 850,000 bags, or 

110.000 bags below that previously carried. Reportedly, excessive rainfall 
during September-November 1979 was the major reason for the lower estimate. 
Also, the coffee crop matured more rapidly and earlier than usual, with the 
result that there was insufficient labor to maximize the harvest. The heavy 
and prolonged rainfall, followed by cloudy weather, not only caused sub- 
stantial droppage of coffee cherries, but also prevented proper drying of 
parchment beans. 

During October-December 1979, exports of green beans were reported at 
139,920 bags. Based on present crop estimates and indicated domestic con- 
sumption needs, Nicaragua may have about 765,000 bags for export during the 
1979/80 marketing year. For 1978/79, Nicaragua's exports were reported at 
942,605 bags of green beans and about 14,000 bags of soluble coffee, qreen 
equivalent. 

For 1979/80, ENCAFE (Empresa Nicaraguense del Cafe) has established a 
system of daily producer prices for prompt or future deliveries. The 
producer price is based on the New York price minus charges and taxes. For 
example, on January 9, 1980, good washed coffee for January delivery was 
quoted at $172.50 per 46 kilograms. In this case, the producer would 
receive $130.15, f.o.b. Nicaraguan port, for green coffee, or $56.20 to 
$56.80 per 46 kilograms for pergamino coffee delivered to ENCAFE purchase 
centers. Producers have been guaranteed $100 per 46 kilograms, f.o.b. port. 

The preliminary production estimate of the 1979/80 Hawaiian c offee 
crop is 1,800,000 pounds, parchment basis, up 7 percent from the previous 
year's harvest despite a drop in harvested area reported by the Hawaiian 
Agricultural Reporting Service. Unlike the year before, when drought con- 
ditions affected the early flowering stage, weather was generally more 
favorable for inducing normal bloom. While rainfall was adequate and kept 
orchards in fair to good condition, growers in some sections indicated 
moisture may have been excessive, especially at the higher slopes, thereby 
affecting berry quality. 

Growers have been receiving an average price of $1.45 per pound for 
parchment coffee, a price exceeded only by the $1.85 per pound received for 
the 1976/77 crop. Total area dropped to 2,100 acres, of which 1,800 were in 
harvest. 

South America 

South American coffee production in 1979/80 is unchanged from the prev- 
ious estimate at 38.9 million bags, up 8 percent from the 1978/79 total. 
Exportable production in 1979/80 is estimated at 27.3 million bags, up more 
than 8 percent over the preceding year's level. 

Bolivian c offee production for the crop year 1979/80 is estimated at 

130.000 bags, up about 6.5 percent from 1978/79's total. Growth in output 
has been limited by low returns to producers (about 5 pesos, equivalent to 
20 U.S. cents per pound for parchment). Heavy rains early in 1979 
apparently had no effect on outturn. 



6 



Bolivia's coffee area is estimated at slightly more than 17,000 hectares. 

The Coffee Grower's Association (ANPROCA) believes coffee production 
could decline 25 percent over the next 5 years if adequate measures are not 
taken to control the spread of coffee rust. Budgetary and other restraints 
apparently limit the Ministry of Agriculture's ability to mount a major con- 
trol program. Rust-resistant varieties are not being used. 

Exports of coffee from Bolivia for April 1979-March 1980 are expected to 
total 125,000 bags, up substantially from the 95,000 bags exported during 
the previous crop year. The increase may be a result of the change in 
Government policy requiring that only 18 percent of production be held for 
domestic consumption. With consumption moving up slightly, substantially 
higher exports during 1979/80 may result in a stock drawdown and reduced ex- 
ports next year. Official 1979 coffee exports were valued at $18.8 million, 
or about 2. A percent of total export earnings. 

Brazil is making rapid progress in recovering its coffee production 
potential, which was drastically reduced by the July 1975 freeze. In 197A, 
Brazil produced 28-30 million 60 kilogram bags. In 1976/77, production 
dropped to less than 10 million bags. The freeze affected, in various de- 
grees, more than one-third of Brazil's 2.6 billion coffee trees. Government 
financial and technical support to growers, as well as favorable weather, 
contributed to the recovery of Brazil's coffee production potential. Based 
on continuing favorable weather for the growth of coffee cherries since last 
December, the fourth and final USDA estimate for the 1979/80 Brazilian 
coffee crop is 22.5 million bags. However, in order to insure a goodquality 
harvest, dry weather will be needed during the May-July period. The har- 
vest, which normally begins in April, can extend into September in some 
areas. 

During calendar 1979, Brazil's coffee exports totaled about 12 million 
bags, earning the equivalent of more than $2.1 billion. This compares with 
12.6 million bags exported during 1978, earning $2.3 billion. 

Brazil's coffee exports have gained a significant price advantage since 
last February 11, when the Brazilian Coffee Institute (IBC) substantially 
reduced the minimum export price and allowed price discounts to foreign 
roasters. Because export commitments for shipment through April were close 
to the rate needed to achieve the 15-16 million-bag export target for 1980, 
Brazil revised its minimum export price upward. The applicable resolutions, 
their minium export registration prices for green, roasted, or roasted and 
ground coffees, and their effective dates are as follows: 



7 



Resolution 
02/80, for 
Shipments 
Feb. 11 - 
Apr. 30, 1980 



Resolution 
04/80, for 
Shipments 
Feb. 28 - 
Apr. 30, 1980 



Resolution 
09/80 for 
Shipments 
Mar. 11- 
May 31, 1980 



U.S. dollars per pound 



Coffees type 6 or better, . 

free from Rio Zone flavor, 1.70^ 

shipped through Santos. 

Coffees type 7 or better, free ? 

from Rio Zone flavor, shipped 1 . 60 =-' 
through Paranagua, Rio de 
Janeiro, Vitoria, Salvador/ 

Ilheus, and Recife. 

Coffee type 7 or better, Rio , 

Zone flavor, shipped through 1 . 55 ^ 

Rio de Janeiro, Vitoria, 

Salvador, and Recife. 

Coffee type 7/8 or better, 1.45^ 

Robusta/Connilon, shipped 

through Salvador/Ilheus 



1.80 



1.78 



1.65 



1.55 



1.90 



1.88 



1.75 



1.65 



1 / From $2.05. 2/ From $2.00. 3/ From $1.90. 4/ From $1.80. 



IBC Resolution 03/80 fixed at US $101.00 (from $147.00) the contribution 
quota on green or decaffeinated coffee per 60.5 kg-bag for shipments made 
February 11-April 30, 1980. The level of the quota was extended beyond April 
30 by Resolution 09/80 of March 10. 

The 1980 resolution set minimum registration prices as follows: 



Resolution 05/80 
Effective Feb. 28 - 
April 30, 1980 



Resolution 06/80 
Effective Mar. 4 
April 30, 1980 



(U.S. dollars per pound) 



4.75 5.30 

5.75 6.30 



IBC Resolution 01/80 
per pound, respectively, 



fixed the contribution quotas at $2.57 and $2.55 
for spray and freeze-dried coffee for shipments 



8 



made from January 8 to March 31, 1980. Effective February 28, 1980, the 
contribution quotas were extented to cover shipments made through April 30, 
1980. The objectives of the current Government coffee policy are to 
maximize foreign-exchange earnings from coffee exports, limit 1980 coffee 
exports to 15 million bags, and encourage proper farm management and recov- 
ery of frost-damaged trees. 

For Colombia , the production estimate given in FAS coffee circular, FC0F 
1-80 is unchanged for 1979/80 at 12 million bags, down slightly from the 
1978/79 harvest. 

Heavy rains and earthquakes during November and December 1979 damaged 
some trees and roads in the affected areas, but the overall effect on future 
production is not likely to be excessive. Rising labor costs, and pesticide 
and fertilizer prices, coupled with a decline in world coffee prices, could 
be important deterrants to increased production in the longer term. 

The Coffee Growers Federation (CGF) expects to have preliminary results 
of the coffee census by the end of 1980, thereby permitting an evaluation of 
tree age, variety, and density changes that have occurred in the coffee pro- 
ducing areas over the past 10 years. 

Area planted to high-yield varieties has now reached 285,000-300,000 
hectares, and reportedly accounts for 58-60 percent of total production. 

The new coffee variety known as Colombia, with high yields and good resist- 
ance to coffee rust, is becoming the preferred variety for new plantings 
replacing the Caturra variety. 

Official coffee exports amounted to 2.6 million bags during 
October-December 1979. This is down 12.3 percent from exports in the first 
quarter of 1978/79, and reportedly is partially the result of more competi- 
tive pricing by Brazil. Estimated official exports for the 1979/80 market- 
ing year are unchanged at 10 million bags. Once again, the CGF was the sole 
exporter. 

Soluble and freeze-dried coffee exports for 1978/79 were revised upward 
to 145,947 bags of 60 kilograms each, based on complete data from CGF. The 
current estimate for 1979/80 is 150,000 bags. 

Partly as a result of meetings between Government officials and growers 
during the 38th Coffee Congress, the official domestic price to growers was 
increased by 200 pesos to 8,300 pesos ($186) per carga of 125 kilograms of 
parchment coffee on December 14, 1979. 

On February 22, the CGF increased its resale price to private exporters 
by 6 cents to $1.85 per pound, ex-dock, U.S. ports. Also, the rebate to 
customers was increased from 17.11 cents per pound to 17.5 cents. 

Retail consumer coffee prices were increased by 50 percent between 
November 1978 and August 1, 1979. Some futher upward price adjustments are 
foreseen during the current calendar year, as the CGF seeks to narrow the 
gap between domestic and export prices by reducing the domestic subsidy. 



9 



A Rotatory Credit Fund for Coffee has been capitalized at 150 million 
pesos. The Monetary Board has also decided to open a special line of credit 
of 200 million pesos for coffee renovation. The Government, through the 
Agricultural Research Institute and the CGF, will invest 22 million pesos in 
a campaign aimed at coffee rust prevention and control in 1980. This is 
40 percent above the amount invested in 1979 for the same purpose. 

Peru's 1979/80 coffee production is estimated at 1.26 million bags. 

This is substantially higher than earlier predictions and is 15 percent 
larger than the revised production for 1978/79. 

Favorable rainfall in most producing areas, high producer prices, 
improved cultural practices, ana some new plantings beginning to bear are 
the major reasons for the high outturn in 1979/80. Also, a streamlined 
marketing program by ENCI has resulted in more timely payments to producers. 

If coffee leaf rust does not adversely affect yields, the long-range 
prospects for production should continue to be favorable. Cooperatives have 
improved assistance programs to members, including training for farmers in 
combatting rust. They have also helped to construct roads within coffee 
growing areas to improve and speed transportation of the product to coopera- 
tive processing and storage centers. Cooperatives have also purchased their 
own trucks to expedite the movement of coffee to export ports. 

Exports of coffee during April-March 1979/80 are estimated at 1.13 mil- 
lion bags, or 28 percent more than was shipped the previous crop year. 
April-December 1979 exports totaled 983,000 bags. 

In calendar 1979, coffee exports totaled 1,157,825 bags valued at $245 
million, a record for both quantity and value, and continued as the leading 
agricultural earner of foreign exchange. The United States, as usual, was 
Peru's major customer, taking 922,789 bags valued at $196 million, or 80 
percent of total shipments — also a new high. 

The quality of Peruvian coffee for export is said to have improved 
considerably in recent years. This is largely a result of efforts by 
cooperatives and the increased use of sorting equipment. ENCI claims that 
because of Peru's and Ecuador's different harvest season vis-a-vis Central 
American growths, they can supply fresh, washed Arabica coffees when other 
suppliers cannot. 

New coffee export marketing regulations were recently decreed and give 
priority to cooperatives and individual producers to export coffee directly 
through ENCI. Furthermore, ENCI was given the exclusive right to export 
green and processed coffee. Finally, the Coffee Cooperative Bank will be 
established to give greater emphasis to marketing activities. 

Coffee rust control is now a primary consideration of the Government. 
Although the disease has not yet proven to be as serious as was previously 
believed, extensive compaigns are being carried out through cooperatives to 
convince farmers of the potential danger and the need to employ rigid 
control methods. In September 1979, the Government created the Natonal 
Coffee Rust Committee. A shortage of funds has impeded the development of 

an intensive program, however. 



10 



Africa 



Total production in Africa in 1979/80 is estimated at 18.7 million bags, 
with exportable production placed at 16.1 million bags. This is nearly 6 
percent more than total 1978/79 production, and more than 6 percent above 
the exportable quantity in 1978/79. Production is expected to increase in 
all of the major producing countries, including Cameroon, Ethiopia, Ivory 
Coast, Kenya, Uganda, and Zaire. The biggest increase — amounting to nearly 

350.000 bags — should come in Uganda, which is recovering from ravages of the 
recent war. 

Cameroon production in 1979/80 is estimated at 1.6 million bags, up 5 
percent from the third estimate and 8 percent higher than the revised 
1978/79 outturn. As there has been little, if any, increase in area planted 
to coffee, evidently yields have been increasing. 

The Ministry of Agriculture, the National Produce Marketing Board, and 
SODECO (Society for the Development of Coffee) have all worked to provide 
adequate inputs of fertilizers and insecticides and extension assistance to 
farmers. Moreover, there were no unusual outbreaks of rust or insect infes- 
tations, and the weather has been generally favorable. 

Cameroon produces both Robusta and Arabica type coffees, with Robusta 
accounting for about three-fourth of total output in recent years. The area 
planted to Robusta and Arabica coffees is currently estimated at 250,000 and 

100.000 hectares, respectively. 

Both cocoa and coffee are major sources of foreign exchange for 
Cameroon, and the Government is stressing rapid development of these sec- 
tors. Also, the recent bonus paid producers for good-quality coffee beans 
has given farmers additional incentive to produce desirable grades. 

Coffee production in Ethiopia for 1979/80 continues to be estimated at 
3.3 million bags, although there are mounting problems in delivering coffee 
to central markets for export. 

Exports in the first 3 months of the coffee year (October-December 1979) 
totaled about 200,000 bags, or some 60,000 bags more than exports in the 
same period in 1978. About 80,000 bags of this volume was old-crop coffee 
that went to the Soviet Union, reportedly in payment of debts incurred under 
an assistance program. 

Coffee deliveries to the Addis Ababa market, as of late January, showed 
some signs of improvement. However, some exporters believe Ethiopia's 
exports in 1979/80 may be as much as 10 percent below 1978/79 shipments. 

The newly appointed Coffee Minister has proposed closer cooperation between 
the Government and the private sector to help overcome some of the problems 
in the industry. Indications are that the Ministry of Coffee will reissue 
export licences — which it had revoked earlier — to some of the larger 
exporting firms. Also, the Ethiopian Coffee Marketing Corporation, the mar- 
keting arm of the Coffee Ministry, reportedly will work closely with private 
export associations to increase exports and foreign exchange earnings. 



11 



Coffee production in the Ivory Coast during 1979/80 is estimated at less 
than 4.2 million bags, 668,000 bags below the third estimate and 11 percent 
less than in 1978/79. The harvest has been both late and reduced because of 
prolonged rains and cloudy weather last fall. Reportedly, the outlook for 
the 1980/81 crop is good at this early stage, with rainfall being adequate 
for good flowering. 

As of the first week of February, coffee deliveries to processing points 
did not appear to exceed 833,000 bags — about half the volume this time last 
year. Besides the lateness of the crop, there has been a shortage of trans- 
portation resulting from cocoa shipments during the past 3 months. As cocoa 
deliveries fall off, the transport problem should be alleviated. 

Export sales of current crop coffee were suspended in December 1979, as 
world prices dropped below the level Ivory Coast officials considered 
reasonable. According to trade sources, sales made before the ban were 
around 1.4 million bags. 

During January-August 1979, coffee exports totaled 3.04 million bags. 
Major markets were France, 24 percent; the United States, 19 percent; the 
Netherlands, 18 percent; United Kingdom, 9 percent; and Italy, 8 percent. 

Some initial results of the Government's coffee rehabilitation program 
have been reported. In the Doloa area, 2,100 hectares are to be pruned over 
the next 2 years. This is only about 1.3 percent of the total area planted 
to coffee in this important producing region. 

Production in Kenya is now estimated at 1.4 million bags, 11 percent 
above the third estimate for 1979/80 and 12 percent larger than the 1978/79 
crop. Main crop deliveries to date have been heavy, especially from the 
societies and areas such as Meru, Muranga, and Embu. The only apparent con- 
straint to growers is the increasing cost of chemicals for spraying. 
Reportedly, the trees as of early February appeared healthy and were 
flowering profusely. 

Coffee production in Liberia is expected to reach 150,000 bags in 
1979/80. Rainfall during the February/March flowering period was favorable, 
in contrast to the 1978/79 season, when only 137,000 bags were produced. 
Official sources indicated the price for first-grade Robusta was increased 
from 78 to 90 cents per pound, effective January 1, 1980. 

Nigeria's 1979/80 coffee crop is estimated at 50,000 bags, the same as 
in 1978/79. The current crop is faced with the same weather problems as in 
the previous season, when heavy and prolonged rainfall increased the inci- 
dence of fungus diseases. 

The local soluble coffee processing plant is said to have had a success- 
ful year in 1978/79. Imports, as estimated, increased to about 80,000 bags, 
green equivalent, during the same period. Exports of green coffee, as 
reported to the ICO, totaled 51,000 bags. Nigerian consumption in 1978/79 
is estimated at 70,000 bags, green bean basis, and could increase to 73,000 
bags in 1979/80. 



12 



The stated Government policies and programs for coffee are to increase 
production, but only as a minor cash crop, with no significant effort being 
made to boost crop potential. 

At 166,000 bags, Sierra Leone's 1979/80 coffee crop is expected to be 
down sharply from last year's record output of 217,000 bags. This estimate 
comes as a suprise, because rains during the February/March flowering period 
were believed to be satisfactory. However, Sierra Leone has a history of 
poor coffee years following good years. 

Producers prices for coffee have remained unchanged at 1747.20 leones 
per ton (75 cents per pound) since January 19, 1979. If Sierra Leone does 
not increase producer prices, the incentive for export smuggling to more 
lucrative bordering markets may increase. 

Asia and Oceania 



Total production of coffee in Asia and Oceania is estimated at 8.7 mil- 
lion bags in 1979/80, compared with 8.1 million 1978/79. The only Asian 
change is in the estimate for India, which has been raised by about 70,000 
bags. Oceania is unchanged. Exportable Asian production increased 9 per- 
cent, while that for Oceania decreased by 4 percent from the 1978/79 level. 
The most important producers in these areas are Indonesia and India. 

India's 1979/80 production estimate has been increased slightly to 2.3 
million bags, and if realized would be a record. The crop may be slightly 
delayed this year, owing to late showers during October/November 1979. For 
1978/79, production is estimated at 1.9 million bags. 

Export allocations of the 1979/80 output are reported at 72,000 tons, or 
1.2 million bags, with 867,000 bags allocated for domestic consumption. 
Coffee that does not enter the pool would be in addition to the official 
consumption figure. 

Export demand for Indian coffee continues strong. On November 16, 1979, 
the Soviet Union reportedly signed the biggest contract ever with the Coffee 
Board for 15,500 tons (258,338 bags) of green coffee valued at 580 million 
rupees ($71.2 million). 

While the Indian Government reduced the export duty on coffee from 730 
rupees per quintal to 570 rupees per quintal effective February 1, 1980, the 
impact is expected to be minimal, owing to the limited stocks available for 
shipment before the end of the current crop in September. 

U.S. COFFEE TRADE 



U.S. imports of green coffee during calendar 1979 totaled 19.4 million 
bags valued at $3.8 billion, compared with 18.1 million bags valued at $3.7 
billion in 1978. In 1977 ana 1976, the volume of green coffee imported was 
14.8 million and 20.3 million bags, respectively. Imports of roasted and 
soluble coffee in 1979, on a green bean equivalent basis (GBE), totaled 2 
million bags valued at $337 million. Comparable imports of processed coffee 



13 



in 1978 were 1.6 million bags valued at $306 million. For years 1976-1979, 
the average unit values per pound of green coffee imports, f.o.b. basis, 
were $1.01, $1.97, $1.55 and $1.49, respectively. During 1979, the average 
monthly unit import value declined slightly in December after reaching a 
peak at $1.81 per pcund in November. In January 1980, the average unit 
import price was at $1.79 per pound. 

In 1979, the 10 leading suppliers of green coffee to the United States 
(in 1,000 bags, with 1978 quantities in parentheses) were as follows: 
Colombia 3,891 (2,808), Mexico 1,934 (1,390), Brazil 1,890 (2,694), 

Indonesia 1,294 (1,176), Guatemala 1,268 (942), El Salvador 1,123 (627), 

Peru 954 (654), Ivory Coast 844 (775), Paraguay 759 (199), and Ecuador 638 
(1,044). 

The 10 largest suppliers contributed 75.2 percent of the green coffee 
imported by the United States during 1979. South America was the largest 
area of origin, with 42.7 percent of the total. 

Total exports of green and processed coffee in 1979 (in GBE) were 

596.000 bags valued at $145 million, compared with 1978 exports of 428,000 
bags valued at $114 million. Reexports of green and processed coffee in 
1979 (in GBE) were 1,185 million bags, compared with 1978 reexports of 

770.000 bags. 

According to U.S. Bureau of Census data, inventories of green coffee held 
by U.S roasters, importers, and dealers on December 31, 1979, were 2,521,000 
bags, up from 2,724,000 bags on September 30, 1979, and 8 percent higher 
than inventories held at the end of 1978. Total green coffee roastings in 
1979 were 17.0 million bags, compared with 16.3 million bags in 1978 and 
14.2 million bags in 1977. 

Based on U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data, the wholesale price of a 
1-pound can of roasted coffee during calendar 1979 averaged $2.74, compared 
with $2.86 in 1978 and $3.52 in 1977. Similarly, the wholesale price of a 
6-ounce jar of instant coffee averaged $2.83 in 1979, $2.86 in 1978, and 
$3.26 in 1977. As of February 1980, the average wholesale price of a 
1-pound can of roasted coffee was $2.95, while the 6-ounce jar of soluble 
was $2.70. 

According to the ICO, the price of regular and soluble coffee in the 
United States increased to $2.89 and $8.76 per pound, respectively, in the 
fourth quarter of 1979 — an increase of nearly 11 percent in the price of 
regular coffee and nearly 10 percent in the price of soluble coffee over 
levels prevailing in the third quarter of 1979. However, the average annual 
prices for regular and soluble coffee in 1979, $2.47 for regular coffee and 
$8.11 for soluble coffee, were below those for 1978 — $2.65 for regular and 
$8.61 for soluble. Since 1975 the price of regular coffee in current terms 
has increased 12.8 percent while that for soluble coffee has increased 94 
percent. Relative to its base in 1975, the index of the price of regular 
coffee in constant terms has increased from 175 in the third quarter of 1979 
to 189 in the fourth quarter. Using the same base, the index of the price 
of regular coffee in constant terms was 168 in 1979, compared with 201 in 
1978. 



14 



In the fourth quarter of 1979, 55.7 percent of the households in the 
United States purchased coffee, compared with 57.1 percent in the fourth 
quarter of 1978. In 1979, the number of households purchasing coffee 
decreased to 55.3 percent from 55.9 percent in 1978. In 1975, slightly over 
61 percent of the households purchased coffee. 

Purchases of coffee per household were on average about 3 percent more 
in 1979 than in 1978, increasing from 31.9 to 32.8 pounds of green equi- 
valent. On a quarterly basis, purchases of coffee per household were 8 
pounds in the fourth quarter of 1979, compared with 8.1 pounds in the same 
period of 1978. 

OTHER DEVELOPMENTS 

Unoer provisions of Resolution 302 of the International Coffee Agreement 
(ICA) of 1976, adopted at the 33rd Session of the International Coffee 
Organization (ICO) September 24-28, 1979, if the 20-day moving average com- 
posite indicator price falls below 168.27 cents per pound, an Executive 
Board meeting must be convened within 14 days. On January 28, 1980, the 
20-day moving average indicator price fell to 167.20 cents per pound, and 
the Executive Director called for an ICO Council meeting of February 7 to 
examine the market situation and consider appropriate action, if any. While 
the participants at the meeting failed to agree on a specific course of 
action, a number of producing countries advocated implementation of the 
Agreement, including export quotas, as soon as possible. As a result, the 
Executive Board was scheduled to meet March 24-26 in London to consider, 
among other items, (1) a revision of the current trigger price of 77 cents 
per pound, (2) initiating export quotas, and (3) related economic provisions 
of the ICA. World coffee prices have since recovered. 

The United States is concerned over the intervention in the coffee 
futures market by the Bogota Group, which includes several Central, North, 
and South American coffee producing countries. Until the Bogota Group issue 
is resolved, no further U.S. Congressional action regaraing ICA implementing 
legislation is expected, and the United States will oppose any revision in 
the ICA's economic provisions, including the trigger price. The U.S. view 
is that continuation of unilateral market activities by producers is incon- 
sistent with the spirit of the ICA. 

The 69th annual convention of the National Coffee Association (NCA) was 
held in Boca Raton, Florida, in February 1980. Representatives from 140 NCA 
member companies and 20 foreign countries were among the more than 800 
delegates registered for the meeting. The president of the NCA delivered 
the keynote address under the theme "Coffee Takes Stock — Now the Eighties," 
which reviewed events of the past decade and prospects for the future. 

A principal speaker at the convention was the Deputy Assistant U.S. 
Secretary of State for International Resources and Food Policy, who dis- 
cussed global trends in coffee supply and consumption over the past few 
years and cited the Brazilian frost of 1975 as the single most important 
factor during that period. Turning to the ICO, he was critical of the 
Bogota Group's actions, and stressed the adverse impact such activities 



15 



created for U.S. Congressional approval of ICA implementing legislation. 
Speaking on behalf of the Bogota Group, the president of the Brazilian 
Coffee Institute indicated producer countries are confronted with rising 
costs for labor, land, energy, and other inputs, and believe adequate 
earnings are necessary in order to make investments required to insure ade- 
quate supplies in the future. 



Information in this circular was prepared by C. Milton Anderson, 
Horticultural and Tropical Products Division, CP/FAS. Telephone: (202) 
447-2048. 



16 



COFFEE# GREENt TOTAL PRODUCTION IN SPECIFIED COUNTRIES - AVERAGE 1970/71-1974/75# ANNUAL 1975/76-1979/80 1 / 

(IN THOUSANDS OF 60 KILOGRAM BAGS)~]2/ “ 



REGION AND COUNTRY 



NORTH AMERICA! 

COSTA RICA 

CUBA 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC.,.. 

EL SALVADOR 

GUATEMALA 

HAITI 

HONDURAS. • •••••• 

JAMAICA 

MEXICO 

NICARAGUA , 

Panama. 

TRINIOAD-TOBAGO 

US-HAW A I I 

US-PUERTO RICO 

TOTAL NORTH AMERICA. 

SOUTH AMERICA! 

BOLIVIA 

BRAZIL 

COLOMRIA 

ECUADOR 3/ 

GUYANA 

Paraguay, 

PERU 

VENEZUELA 

TOTAL SOUTH AMERICA, 

AFRICA! 

ANGOLA. • •••••• 

BENIN 

BURUNDI 

CAMEROON 

CENTRAL AFRICAN EMPIRE 
CONGO, BRAZZAVILLE.... 

EQUATORIAL GUINEA 

ETHIOPIA 

GABON. 

GHANA 

GUINEA 

IVORY COAST..... 

KENYA 

LIBERIA 

MADAGASCAR 

NIGERIA 

Rwanda 

SIERRA LEONE 

TANZANIA 

TOGO 

UGANDA 

ZAIRE ( CONGO , K ) 

TOTAL AFRICA 

ASIA! 

INOIA 

INDONESIA 

MALAYSIA 

PHILIPPINES 

PORTUGUESE TIMOR 

VIETNAM 

YEMEN, ARAB PEP 

TOTAL ASIA ..., 

OCEANIA! 

NEW CALEDONIA 

PAPUA NEW GUINEA 

TOTAL OCEANIA 



WORLD TOTAL 



1 AVERAGE ! 

I 1970/71-1974/75 1 


! 

1975/76 ! 


! 

1976/77 1 


1 

1977/78 I 


! 

1978/79 ! 


1979/80 



. 1.416 

► 472 

. 807 

. 2.549 

. 2.187 

. 575 

. 712 

. 24 

► 3.629 

. 663 

. 79 

. 51 

. 19 

. 208 


1.276 

415 

1,040 

2,530 

2.043 

575 

636 

34 

3.856 

790 

66 

42 

11 

191 


1.331 

450 

728 

2.973 

2.613 

511 

691 

17 

3.650 

852 

78 

60 

13 

145 


1.449 

425 

1.025 

2.400 

2.350 

544 

1.036 

23 

3.500 

967 

105 

41 

14 

199 


1.755 

450 

680 

3,423 

2,800 

468 

1.132 

14 

4,081 

1,004 

103 

39 

10 

159 


1.544 

450 

670 

2.700 

2.550 

650 

1.250 

35 

3.800 

850 

100 

38 

11 

161 


. 13.390 


13.504 


14,111 


14.078 


16,118 


14,809 










ian« c- 


sr:333«s:xB3:uii3n:ss 


. 91 


124 


108 


118 


122 


130 


. 20.380 


23.000 


9,300 


17,500 


20,000 


22.500 


. 8,120 


8,500 


9,300 


11,050 


12.268 


12.000 


. 1.143 


1.244 


1.690 


1.238 


1,839 


1.704 


. 12 


IS 


17 


17 


17 


18 


. 76 


139 


41 


71 


144 


120 


, 1.035 


881 


947 


1.050 


1.100 


1.265 


. 978 


923 


656 


1.061 


1.019 


1.150 


. 31,835 


34,826 


22.059 


32,105 


36.509 


38.887 


3.528 


1.160 


1.131 


1.247 


613 


700 


. 29 


19 


17 


3 


3 


5 


391 


279 


359 


285 


387 


360 


1.433 


1.482 


1,307 


1.371 


1.484 


1.600 


185 


150 


166 


165 


80 


180 


13 


28 


33 


46 


107 


70 


113 


90 


90 


80 


90 


100 


2,427 


2,677 


2.882 


3.243 


3,279 


3.280 


10 


1 


7 


3 


6 


8 


59 


56 


70 


35 


58 


58 


79 


23 


39 


16 


60 


50 


4,280 


5,266 


4,867 


3.320 


4.667 


4.167 


1.122 


1.244 


1.687 


1.417 


1.241 


1.395 


79 


88 


156 


137 


137 


150 


1.139 


1.141 


984 


1.292 


723 


1.300 


54 


67 


53 


53 


50 


50 


324 


434 


531 


362 


311 


380 


131 


64 


168 


77 


217 


166 


874 


959 


805 


835 


856 


900 


172 


151 


177 


82 


128 


150 


3.265 


2.214 


2,664 


1.868 


1.854 


2.200 


1.385 


1.072 


1,437 


1.279 


1.300 


1.400 


21,093 


18.684 


19,630 


17.216 


17,651 


18.669 


1.589 


1.498 


1.791 


2.221 


1.857 


2.300 


2.425 


3.049 


3.214 


3.221 


4,649 


4.750 


84 


135 


125 


121 


142 


145 


493 


483 


550 


575 


600 


660 


63 


75 


65 


75 


4/ 


4/ 


55 


60 


60 


65 


"70 


"70 


52 


45 


45 


50 


50 


50 


4,761 


5.345 


5.850 


6,328 


7,368 


7,975 


27 


25 


25 


25 


25 


25 


556 


635 


700 


674 


730 


700 


583 


660 


725 


699 


755 


725 


71.663 


73.020 


62.375 


70,426 


78,401 


81,065 



i J Coffee marketing year begins about July in some countries and in others about October. 2 J 132.276 pounds. 3/ As indicated in footnote 1, the coffee 
marketing year begins in some countries as early as July. Ecuador is one of these countries. Hence, the crop harvested principally during June-October 
1978 in that country is shown as production for the 1978/79 marketing year. In Ecuador, however, this is referred to as the 1977/78 crop. 4/ Beginning 
1978/79 included in Indonesia. 

NOTE: Production estimates for some countries include cross-border movements. Also, due to rounding, country totals may not add to area and world totals. 

Source: Prepared or estimated on the basis of official statistics of foreign governments, other foreign source materials, reports of U.S. Agricultural 
Attaches and Foreign Service Officers, results of office research, and related information. 



April 1980 



Commodity Programs, 



FAS, OSDA 



17 



COFFEE, GREEN* EXPORTABLE PRODUCTION IN SPEC IF IEO COUNTRIES - AVERAGE 1970/71-1974/75, ANNUAL 1975/76-1979/80 

(IN THOUSANDS OF 60 KILOGRAM BAGS) 2/ 



REGION AND COUNTRY I AVERAGE * I I * * 

I 1970/71-1974/75 * 1975/76 * 1976/77 l 1977/70 I 1978/79 S 1979/00 



NORTH AMERICA* 



COSTA RICA.. 


, 1*265 


1.104 


1.147 


1.264 


1.535 


1.319 


CUB&OM 


, 


-- 


.. 


— 


— 


.... 


DOMINICAN REPUBLIC........ 


. 526 


755 


481 


755 


400 


390 


el Salvador., 0 «o. 9 o.»,o*o< 


, 2*382 


2.350 


2.788 


2.210 


3.228 


2,500 


GUATEMALA 


. 1.924 


1*753 


2.315 


2,045 


2,490 


2.235 


HAITI. 


. 353 


350 


270 


304 


228 


405 


HONDURAS. 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 < 


, 617 


532 


587 


929 


1,028 


1.142 


JAMAICA, 0 o 0 0 o o o o o o o 0 o o 0 0 o < 


, 6 


21 


8 


17 


6 


28 


MEXICO. 


, 2.045 


2.456 


2,400 


2.100 


2,881 


2,500 


NICARAGUA. 0 O 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 « 


. 587 


714 


774 


887 


921 


765 


PANAMA....... 00.000000000, 


, 18 


3 


13 


38 


35 


32 


trinidad-tobago... 


, 39 


31 


45 


27 


25 


23 


US-HAWAlIoo...... 




-- 










US-PUERTO RICO 


, 


— 


-- 


— 




— 


TOTAL NORTH AMERICA.,.., 


, 9,760 


10*068 


10,828 


10,576 


12,777 


11.339 


SOUTH AMERICA* 














BOLIVIA...,..,,...., o.o.o, 


* 67 


95 


80 


87 


89 


96 


BRAZIL,.,.... 0 , 0 0 0 . 0, 


> 12*536 


15,000 


1,800 


10,000 


12,000 


14,000 


COLOMBIA. , 0 0 0 . 0 . 0, 


» 6,716 


7.100 


7,900 


9,500 


10,668 


10,350 


ECUADOR 3/.. 


» 998 


1.079 


1.515 


1.043 


1,636 


1.492 


GUYANA... 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 . . 0 0 0 . 0, 


» 


-- 




«=- 


-- 


-=» 


Paraguay. . 


> 53 


114 


15 


45 


117 


93 


PERU. 0 0 0 . 0 .. 0 . 0 . 0 0 . 0 . . 0 0 0, 


, 801 


631 


697 


800 


850 


1.015 


VENEZUELA 


. 305 


222 


189 


271 


179 


230 


TOTAL SOUTH AMERICA...,, 


. 21,475 


24.241 


12.196 


21,746 


25.539 


27.276 


AFRICA* 














ANGOLA 0 0 0 0 


, 3*434 


1*100 


267 


1.172 


533 


620 


BENIN. 0 0 . . 0 0 . 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0, 


» 28 


18 


16 


2 


2 


4 


BURUNDI . . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . , 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 , 


o 389 


276 


357 


282 


384 


357 


CAMEROON. 


» 1*407 


1.455 


1,281 


1 , 344 


1,456 


1.570 


CENTRAL AFRICAN EMPIRE, 


. 175 


139 


155 


153 


60 


166 


CONGO. BRAZZAVILLE, o o o . o , , 


. U 


27 


32 


45 


106 


69 


EQUATORIAL GUINEA. o . . . o , . , 


. 103 


80 


80 


70 


80 


90 


ETHIOPIA...... 0,000000000, 


. 1.137 


l.on 


1,049 


1,354 


1.379 


1,380 


GABON 


o 9 


-- 


6 


2 


5 


7 


GHANA. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . o , , 0 0 . . 0 . o 0 . 


o 47 


41 


55 


25 


49 


52 


GUINEA... 00 ..... ooo.oo.,., 


o 75 


17 


33 


10 


54 


44 


IVORY COAST... 00000.00000, 


o 3*754 


5.107 


4,782 


3,284 


4,625 


4.117 


KENYA, oooooo 0.0000.0000,0, 


. 1*097 


1.224 


1.644 


1,367 


1.200 


1,353 


LIBERIA, 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 0 .. . 0 . 0, 


o 73 


79 


146 


126 


126 


138 


MADAGASCAR. . . , 


. 1.001 


1.001 


851 


1.152 


578 


1,152 


NIGERIA,,..,. ooo.oo.ooooo, 


. 14 


18 


-- 


-- 


-- 


-- 


RWANDA. , , 


o 322 


432 


529 


360 


309 


378 


SIERRA LEONE. 


. 126 


59 


163 


72 


212 


161 


TANZANIA.. . o. o.o.o, 


. 853 


934 


700 


814 


836 


880 


TOGO. 


. 171 


ISO 


17b 


81 


127 


149 


UGANDA, . o . 


. 3.243 


2.192 


2.634 


1,838 


1,024 


2.170 


ZAIRE ( CONGO , K ) , 


, 1.253 


922 


1,270 


1.104 


1,120 


1.210 




. 18.724 


16,282 


16,306 


14.657 


15,073 


16,067 


ASIA* 














INDIA...,., . 0 . 0 . , 0 0 0 . 0 ... 


. 882 


749 


941 


1.317 


1.006 


1.375 


INDONESIA. ...oooo.,.. .... 


. 1.488 


2.033 


2,400 


2,702 


3.865 


3.950 


MALAYSIA.. ...... ooooo.o.. 


* 


39 


39 




20 


20 


PHILIPPINES. .oo. ..... 


. 27 


142 


242 


250 


242 


270 


PORTUGUESE TIMOR 


. 55 


65 


55 


65 


4/ 


4/ 


VIETNAM 


. 25 


30 


30 


30 


55 


36 


YEMEN, ARAB REP.......... 


. 42 


35 


35 


40 


40 


40 


TOTAL ASIA 


. 2.519 


3.093 


3,742 


4,404 


5,208 


5.690 


OCEANIA* 














NEW CALEDONIA....... 


o 17 


15 


15 


14 


14 


14 


PAPUA NEW GUINEA 


o 546 


621 


605 


659 


716 


686 


TOTAL OCEANIA 


. 563 


636 


700 


673 


730 


700 


WORLO TOTAL 


. 53.041 


54.320 


43.773 


52,056 


59,327 


61,072 



— Denotes negligible, unknown, or not available. 



1/ Coffee marketing year begins about July In some countries and in others about October. Exportable production represents total harvested production 
minus estimated domestic consumption. 2/ 132.276 pounds. 3/ As indicated in footnote 1, the coffee marketing year begins in some countries as early as 
July. Ecuador is one of these countries. Hence, the crop harvested principally during June-October 1978 in that country is shown as production for the 
1978/79 marketing year. In Ecuador, however, this is referred to as the 1977/78 crop, 4/ Beginning 1978/79 included in Indonesia. 

NOTE: Production estimates for some countries include cross-border movements. Also, due to rounding, country totals may not add to area and world 

totals. 



Source: Prepared or estimated on the basis of 

Attaches and Foreign Service Officers, results 



official statistics 
of office research, 



of foreign governments, other foreign source materials, 
and related information. 



reports of U.S. Agricultural 



April 1980 



Commodity Programs , FAS , USDA 



18 



GREEN COFFEE: VALUE OF EXPORTS BY SPECIFIED PRODUCING COUNTRIES 

1974-78 1 / 

(In million U.S. dollars) 



Country 

Costa Rica 

Dominican Republic.. 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Haiti 

Honduras 

Mexico 

Nicaragua 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Peru 

Venezuela 

Angola 

Ethiopia 

Ivory Coast 

Kenya 

Tanzania 

Uganda 

India 

Indonesia 



1974 : 


: 1975 


: 1976 


: 1977 


: 1978 2/ 


125 


97 


154 


319 


307 


30 


43 


103 


185 


118 


161 


230 


403 


744 


469 


173 


164 


243 


526 


475 


16 


23 


51 


70 


49 


44 


57 


101 


169 


212 


170 


184 


393 


512 


364 


46 


48 


119 


199 


203 


864 


855 


2,173 


2,299 


1,947 


623 


675 


967 


1,513 


2,136 


68 


67 


208 


160 


263 


35 


49 


106 


197 


168 


23 


18 


38 


51 


46 


229 


200 


149 


254 


227 


73 


74 


155 


265 


306 


297 


287 


617 


924 


783 


107 


99 


220 


482 


319 


53 


65 


155 


224 


155 


231 


212 


298 


547 


313 


75 


85 


142 


280 


205 


98 


100 


238 


599 


491 



Total specified 
countries .... 



3,541 



3,632 



7,033 10,519 



9,556 



JV Coffee exports from these countries represent around 90 percent of 
total world exports. 2/ Preliminary. 



Source: Compiled from official statistics of foreign governments, reports 

of agricultural attaches and Foreign Service Officers, trade reports, and 
other related source materials. 

April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS/USDA 



19 



GREEN COFFEE: U.S. IMPORTS, BY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN 

QUANTITY AND VALUE, 1978 AND 1979 



Continent and Country 



North America: 

Costa Rica 

Dominican Republic... 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Haiti 

Honduras 

Mexico 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Trinidad and Tobago 

Other 

Total North America 

South America: 

Brazil. 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Peru. 

Venezuela 

Other 

Total South America 

Africa : 

Angola 

Burund i 

Cameroon 

Ethiopia. 

Ivory Coast 

Kenya 

Madagascar 

Rwanda 

Tanzania. 

Uganda 

Zaire 

Other 

Total Africa 

Asia and Oceania: 

India 

Indonesia 

Papua New Guinea 

Other 

Total Asia and Oceania... 
Other Countries 

Grand Total 



_!/ Preliminary. 2/ 132.276 



: 1978 


1979 1/ 


: 60 Kg Bags 2/ 


1,000 Dollars 


60 Kg Bags 2/ 


1,000 Dollars 


: 334,415 


69,613 


515,699 


109,177 


: 460,591 


101,923 


548,009 


124,705 


: 627,088 


113,773 


1,123,406 


212,821 


: 942,485 


202,028 


1,267,598 


252,297 


: 61,151 


12,148 


32,146 


6,192 


: 534,931 


119,513 


547,084 


101,352 


: 1,389,595 


272,237 


1,934,418 


391,660 


: 147,128 


33,234 


193,944 


35,733 


: 41,809 


9,946 


28,689 


5,833 


: 14,508 


2,653 


2,690 


445 


: 14,738 


3,249 


4,652 


1,055 


: 4,568,439 


940,317 


6,198,335 


1,241,270 


: 2,694,226 


644 , 961 


1,890,483 


388,537 


: 2,807,996 


680,538 


3,890,865 


785,062 


: 1,044,396 


193,246 


638,057 


128,729 


: 654,307 


125,072 


954,493 


197,825 


: 238,583 


45,488 


121,010 


19,891 


: 226,979 


37,208 


789,411 


151,641 


: 7,666,487 


1,726,513 


8,284,319 


1,671,685 










: 303,559 


53,244 


40,052 


6,698 


: 172,974 


28,225 


195,246 


36,259 


: 208,705 


38,244 


182,559 


32,528 


: 461,142 


91,956 


549,166 


104,896 


: 774,706 


148,050 


833,920 


154,337 


: 106,668 


20,509 


57,848 


11,812 


: 406,363 


76,812 


261,403 


45,752 


: 230,838 


45,064 


167,409 


37,713 


: 333,972 


61,206 


172,280 


30,074 


: 437,925 


81,330 


360,763 


81,732 


: 597,527 


110,593 


84,396 


16,906 


: 154,015 


31,206 


179,528 


34,728 


: 4,188,394 


786,439 


3,084,570 


593,435 


: 276,889 


48,539 


297,592 


55,423 


: 1,176,725 


178,691 


1,294,186 


209,588 


: 169,020 


31,949 


103,538 


22,099 


: 73,149 


12,361 


104,814 


17,879 


: 1,695,783 


271,540 


1,800.130 


304,989 


: 13,674 


3,490 


28,729 


7,597 


: 18,132,777 


3,728,299 


19,396,083 


3,818,976 



pounds each. 



Source: Compiled from U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census data. 



April 1980 



Commodity Programs, FAS/USDA 



20 



GREEN COFFEE: U.S. GROSS IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION BY MONTHS, 1975-79 

(In 60 kilogram bags) 

Month : 1975 : 1976 : 1977 : 1978 : 1979 1/ 



January : 1,851,613 1,664,327 1,994,147 1,682,045 1,747,330 

February : 1,656,028 1,743,777 1,706,674 1,574,583 1,353,257 

March : 1,534,871 2,311,082 1,839,178 1,707,452 1,630,811 

April : 1,448,487 1,636,324 1,824,133 1,556,739 2,036,535 

May : 1,365,017 1,546,394 1,223,533 1,345,237 1,618,619 

June : 1,735,631 1 ,863,977 1,136,816 1,249,290 1,617,283 



January- June : 9,591,647 10,765,881 9,724,481 9,115,346 10,003,835 



July : 1,625,743 1,909,138 755,821 1,315,844 1,596,934 

August : 1,867,525 1,636,634 695,029 1,123,721 1,404,349 

September : 2,533,330 956,398 678,095 1,337,360 1,631,848 

October : 1,783,726 1,012,923 635,077 1,901,294 1,273,073 

November : 1,587,478 1,648,566 971,964 1,688,512 1,592,806 

December : 1,299,058 1 ,858,301 1,347,223 1,650,700 1,893,238 



July-December : 10,696,860 9,021,960 5,083,209 9,017,431 9,392,248 



Calendar year. : 

Total : 20 , 288 ,507 19,787 ,841 14,807,690 18,132,777 19,396,083 



_1 / Preliminary. 2 _/ Year ending September 30 of year shown; ICO is International 
Coffee Organization. 

Source: Compiled from U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census data. 

April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS/USDA 



21 



GREEN COFFEE: U.S. GROSS IMPORTS BY COUNTRY OR AREA OF ORIGIN 

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22 



April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS/USDA 



COFFEE: UNITED STATES TRADE, QUANTITY AND VALUE, 1975-1979 



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23 



April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS/USDA 



COUNTRY BY TIME PERIOD BEGINNING PRODUCTION IMPORTS TOTAL DOMESTIC EXPORTS ENDING 

STOCKS SUPPLY USE STOCKS 

DISTRIBUTN BEANS RSTD/GRND SOLUBLE TOTAL 




24 



HORTICULTURAL AND TROPICAL PRODUCTS DIVISION 

MARCH 1980 COMMODITY PROGRAMSt EASt USDA 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
WASHINGTON. D.C. 202 S© 



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